The Committee of Geology and Subsoil Use provides the regional hydrogeological studies, the exploration on groundwater, conducts state monitoring of underground waters and dangerous geological processes.
Regional hydrogeological studies
The hydrogeological survey of scale 1: 200,000 is aimed at the identifying of promising areas for the search of new fields of drinking water, for the purpose of drinking water supply, the areas of the manifestations of the mineral underground waters, the areas of pollution, the compilation of hydrogeological maps of the new generation, the preparation of a basis for settlement patterns and location of the productive forces of Kazakhstan and the schemes of regional planning of the oblasts.
From 2007 to 2014 the hydrogeological fieldwork was carried out on an area of 161.1 thousand square kilometers. The results of these studies were the basis of the creation of the design and estimate documentation (hereinafter, DED) to conduct the exploration on groundwater for water supply of settlements, geothermal waters, as well as the drawing up of the modern hydrogeological maps of different scales.
In 2015 the works were continued on the additional hydrogeological study with geotechnical investigations of the scale 1: 200,000 for 10 projects on the area of 49.444 square kilometers, as well as the works were began on five new projects in the area of 27.846 square kilometers.
Exploration work on underground water.
As part of the development program of the resource base of the mineral complex of the country in 2005-2011 the exploration was conducted to provide 576 villages by the groundwater reserves, including 62 villages in the Akmola region, 51 in the Aktobe region, 20 in the Almaty region, 32 in the Atyrau region, 86 in the Eastern Kazakhstan region,19 in the Zhambyl region, 77 in the Western Kazakhstan region, 23 in the Karaganda region, 55 in the Kostanai region, 9 in the Kyzylorda region, 20 in the Mangistau region, 46 in the Pavlodar region, 63 in the Northern Kazakhstan region and 13 in the Southern Kazakhstan region. As a result, 559 villages out of 576 are provided for the reserves of underground water in the amount of 123.37 thousand cubic meters per day, while for 17 villages the sources of groundwater have not been identified.
In 2009, to provide water to the Shardarinsky (the Southern Kazakhstan) and the Aral-Sarybulaksky (the Kyzylorda region) group pipelines the revaluation of the reserves of the Tolagaysky and the Bayrkumsky-Shardarinsky groundwater deposits was conducted with the confirmed reserves in the total amount of 117.4 thousand cubic meters per day, which cover the needs of their applications.
In 2010, for the water supply to the city of Astana the revaluation of the reserves of the Atbasar, the Atbasar-Priishimsky, the Nurinsky and the Rozhdestvensky fields was conducted. As a result the operational reserves are approved in a total amount of 111.8 thousand m3/day, including the Nurinsky deposit- 48.0 thousand m3/day, the Atbasar deposit — 14.3 thousand m3/day, the Atbasar-Priishimsky deposit — 30.0 thousand m3/day, and the Verkhne-Romanovsky section of the Rozhdestvensky deposit — 19.5 thousand m3/day.
In 2011, there was finished up the additional exploration of the revaluation reserves of 12 deposits (areas) of groundwater including the intakes of Smychka, Svoboda and Zaton to supply the city of Semey; theTaysoygansky and the Miyalinsky for the Inder-Miyalinsky group water pipeline in the Atyrau region; the Tasmolinsky and Poltava for groups of villages and the district center Chingirlau of the Western Kazakhstan region; the Zhidelinsky for the Zhidelinsky group water pipeline of the Kyzylorda region; the Kyzylkuramsky, the Sputniksky and the Kurgulsky for the Maysky group water pipeline to provide drinking water to 30 villages of the Pavlodar region and the Karachiksky for Turkestan. As a result, the total proven reserves of these facilities were amounted to 261.46 thousand m3/day, covering the expressed needs.
Since 2011 the arrangements for the exploration were carried out in the framework of the program «Ak Bulak». In 2011, the Design and estimate documentation has been developed, and in 2012-2014 the exploration was carried out to ensure the supply with groundwater reserves 557 villages and revaluation reserves of 65 deposits. According to the results of the works there were approved the operating reserves of groundwater for 543 villages in the amount of 252.57 thousand m3/day, the deposits of 65 fields were overvalued in a total amount of 1 896.5 thousand m3/day.
In 2014 the exploration for 744 villages and the revaluation of the reserves of 40 fields were launched, which will be completed in December 2015. There was also developed the Design and estimate documentation for carrying the exploration to 480 villages and revaluation reserves of 35 fields, which will be launched in 2015. The dedicated funds for the exploration for 2014 in the amount of 9 193. 900 million tenge were mastered completely.
In 2015, in accordance with the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 09.29.2014, № 239-V, to the functions of local executive bodies there were assigned the works on the organization and conduct exploration on groundwater for the settlements that were previously performed by the Committee on Geology and Subsoil Use.
In this regard, in 2015 the Monitoring and evaluation of mineral resources forecast continued the exploration for 744 villages and revaluation reserves of 40 deposits with completion in the IVth quarter of 2015, and also there were started the works on new projects: the revaluation reserves of 35 deposits and exploration for 480 villages were sat down with the completion in the IVth quarter 2016. In addition, there was started the development of design estimates for carrying out the exploration works for 480 villages and 35 fields.
As the international experience shows, geothermal waters are the most valuable mineral resources that allow, at a relatively low cost, to use them as a constant source of heat resources for heating, hot water supply, the organization of a greenhouse complex, power generation and other needs of the sectors of the economy of the country.
The analysis of the results of the research on the geothermal waters indicates that they were opened by the wells in the Iliysky, the Syrdarynsky, the Irtyshsky, the Mangyshlak-Ustyurtsky, the Chu-Sarysuysky and the Zaisansky artesian basins.
In 2006, 40 wells have been surveyed in the southern and the southern-eastern part of the country with the preparation of a feasibility study. According to the feasibility study there were identified the areas of exploration. In 2008, the exploration was completed with the evaluation of the operational stocks of geothermal waters of Zharkent.
In 2014, the Design and estimate documentation was developed, and in 2015 the exploration was launched on geothermal waters in the area of Zharkunak of the Zharkentsky pool in the Almaty region to assess the operational stocks of thermal groundwater for their integrated use in heating, domestic hot water, the organization of greenhouses complexes, and other needs. The works with the statement of reserves will be finished in the IV quarter in 2016.
Monitoring of groundwater and hazardous geological processes
The state monitoring of underground waters and dangerous geological processes is conducted to assess the state of resources and the quality of groundwater for development of measures to prevent their depletion and pollution, the state of dangerous geological processes to prevent their manifestation.
Systematic monitoring observations for the study of the regime and the balance, the condition and the rational use of groundwater were conducted in public observation network on all administrative oblasts.
All information is stored in the Central Information Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan on subsoil and subsoil use.
In 2014 the results of the monitoring studies of groundwater for 2012-2013 were reflected in 11 reports on the study of the regime and the state of balance and groundwater in the Eastern Kazakhstan (the Semipalatinsk region), the Eastern Kazakhstan (the Eastern Kazakhstan region), the Aktobe, the Atyrau , the Kostanai, the Pavlodar, the Akmola, the Almaty, the Zhambyl, the Kyzylorda and the Southern Kazakhstan oblasts.
For the study of man-made pollution of groundwater there were organized and conducted the surveillances on the Mirgalimsay-Turkestansky (base metals), the Koshkaratinsky (strontium, molybdenum, selenium, etc.), the Rudnensko-Kostanaysky (nickel, iron, fluorine, etc.), the Semipalatinsky (radionuclides) and the Ileksky (hexavalent chromium) landfills.
The long-term studies on hydrogeodynamic earthquake precursors in earthquake-prone areas in Southern-Eastern Kazakhstan at 9 posts («Saryzhas», «Boguty», «Turgen’’, Kazachka», «Medeo», «Kaskelen», «Copa», «Akkol», «Lugovaya») are conducted, the observations were organized and conducted surveillance at the post «Zaisan» in the Eastern Kazakhstan region in 2007, as well as in the areas of the development of the hydrocarbon potential in the post «Egiz» in the Atyrau region and «Beke» in the Mangistau region. The results of observations of seismic monitoring are daily transferred to the Interdepartmental Commission on earthquake prediction for the compilation of the weekly short and medium-term forecast of strong earthquakes.
They also monitor hazardous geological processes (landslides, landslides, gullying, collapsed river banks and others.). There were restored and newly created observation posts and polygons in the densely populated and economically developed areas of the Almaty, the Eastern Kazakhstan, the Atyrau, the Mangistau, the Karaganda, the Zhambyl and the Southern Kazakhstan regions. Today, the network for the study of dangerous geological processes consists of 39 stations and 2 landfills (the Irtyshsky and the Kaskelen-Talgarsky).
The database subsystem «Underground water» (State water cadastre) is being functioning, updating and optimizing as a part of the Central Bank of Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan on subsoil and subsoil use. In 2007, there was optimized the structure of the database by the sections «Deposits of underground water», «Water intakes,» «Observation points», a new information unit «Underground Facilities» is developed.
Annually the monitoring data are transmitted to the interested state and local executive bodies.
In 2015, for carrying out the state monitoring of underground waters and dangerous geological processes 523.6 million tenge has been allocated.